European Credit Transfer System
The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) is the generalised basis for all the national credit systems in the European Higher Education Area. ECTS is a learner-centred system for credit accumulation and transfer based on the transparency of learning outcomes and learning processes. It aims to facilitate planning, delivery, evaluation, recognition and validation of qualifications and units of learning as well as student mobility. ECTS is widely used in formal higher education and can be applied to other lifelong learning activities.
- European Commission (2009) ECTS Users' Guide. Brussels, p. 11