Dublin Descriptors

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The Dublin Descriptors are the cycle descriptors (or "level descriptors") presented in 2003 and adopted in 2005 as the Qualifications Framework of the European Higher Education Area. They offer generic statements of typical expectations of achievements and abilities associated with awards that represent the end of each of a (Bologna) cycle or level. The descriptors are phrased in terms of competence levels, not learning outcomes, and they enable to distinguish in a broad and general manner between the different cycles. A level descriptor includes the following five components:

  • Knowledge and understanding
  • Applying knowledge and understanding
  • Making judgements
  • Communication
  • Lifelong learning skills


  • Bologna Follow-Up Group (2005) Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area. Kopenhagen, p. 9.

See also